Gender - Endocrine
1905 - 'Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality', by Sigmund Freud, published
1910 - Magnus Hirschfeld, a German sexologist and an openly gay man, publishes 'The Transvestites', coining
1919 - Hirschfeld's Institute for Sexual Science, the first clinic to serve transgendered people on a
regular basis, opens in Berlin, Germany
1920 - Jonathan Gilbert publishes 'Homosexuality and Its Treatment' , a case study of Dr. Alan Hart,
who would today be described as a female-to-male transsexual
1923 - First estrogen bioassay is developed. The test detects estrogenic activity in biological extracts
and determines relative potencies of compounds and mixed natural materials.
1929 - Commercial production of PCBs begins in the United States in response to the electrical industry's
need for a safer cooling and insulating fluid for industrial transformers and capacitors
1930 - Lili Elbe undergoes SRS in Germany, later dying after removal of unsuccessfully transplanted ovaries
1931 - Felix Abraham publishes “Genital Reassignment of Two Male Transvestites”
1933 - Institute for Sexual Science closed by the Nazis
1938 - British scientist and physician Edward Charles Dodds announces the synthesis of a chemical that acted
in the body like a natural estrogen. Called DES, it is hailed by leading researchers and gynecologists as a wonder drug with
a host of potential uses. (Dodds was later knighted for his scientific achievement.) Soon after Dodds invents DES, researchers
in the United States begin giving the synthetic hormone to women with problem pregnancies. The massive experiment would eventually
involve an estimated 4.8 million pregnant women worldwide
1948 - Paul Muller is awarded a Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering the insect-killing properties of
1950 - DDT is shown to disrupt sexual development in roosters -- possibly by acting as a hormone. Scientists
V.F. Lindeman and Howard Burlington find that young roosters treated with DDT fail to develop normal male sex characteristics,
such as combs and wattles. The pesticide also stunted the growth of the animals' testes. These scientists noted a similarity
between DDT and DES, a synthetic estrogen given to women for problem pregnancies. DDT, they observe, "may exert an estrogen-like
action" on the animal in question.
1952 - By this date, four separate scientific studies show women treated with DES to prevent miscarriage
did no better than those treated with alternatives such as bed rest or sedatives. Further analysis will show that DES actually
increases the number of miscarriages, premature births, and deaths among infants.
1952 - Christine Jorgensen undergoes SRS and returns to a US media frenzy
1955 - The term "gender role" first appears in print
1962 - "Silent Spring" is published. Rachel Carson's book describes health problems observed in wildlife
such as egg shell thinning, deformities and population declines. Carson links these adverse effects to exposure to pesticides
and other synthetic chemicals
1963 - Study shows that newborn mice receiving estrogen injections developed tissue pathologies such as cysts,
cancers, and lesions. Results indicate that exposure to naturally occurring hormones early in life can produce harmful health
effects and point to possible early life causes of cancer in adult human populations.
1966 - Harry Benjamin publishes 'The Transsexual Phenomena'
New clinic for transsexuals opens at The
Johns Hopkins Hospital
1967 - Money publishes "The genetics of homosexuality"
1968 - DDT is shown to be estrogenic in mammals and birds.
1969 - Green & Money publish 'Transsexualism and sex reassignment'.
1969 - The Stonewall
1970 - Money publishes "Sex reassignment"
1971- DES is linked to vaginal cancer in daughters whose mothers had taken the drug during the first three
months of pregnancy. By this date, millions of pregnant women had received prescriptions from physicians for DES.
1971 - U.S. Food and Drug Administration directs doctors not to prescribe DES to pregnant women and bans
the drug for animal use.
1972 - DDT use is restricted in agriculture by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
1973 - International Joint Commission (IJC) for the U.S. and Canada singles out first "Areas of Concern"
in the Great Lakes region, noting extensive pollution and threats to wildlife
1973 - American Psychiatric Association votes to remove homosexuality from DSM ; subsequent version includes
"ego-dystonic homosexuality" as a diagnosis
1974 - Green publishes 'Sexual Identity Conflict in Children and Adults'
1975 - Money publishes case study on John/Joan, whose penis was destroyed by a botched circumcision and
who was reassigned female, with his identical twin brother functioning as a "control" in the "experiment of opportunity"
1975 - Money & Tucker publish Sexual Signatures: On Being a Man or a Woman
1975 & 1976 - DES is shown to cause developmental abnormalities in male mice and reproductive problems
1977 - Use and manufacture of PCBs restricted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PCBs continue
to be manufactured and sold overseas
1978 - Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between U.S. and Canada calls for virtual elimination of persistent
toxic substances from Great Lakes basin.
1979 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences holds conference entitled: Estrogens in the Environment
I. Presented papers identify and evaluate both advertent and inadvertent hormone mimics.
Manufacture of PCB's banned
in the U.S., but not their use or storage
1979 - First draft of Harry Benjamin Standards of Care approved by the Sixth Annual Gender Dysphoria
1979 - Janice Raymond publishes 'The Transsexual Empire'
1980 - DSM-III published: gender identity disorder is added as diagnosis.
Paul Walker organizes the
Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association.
Teenage "John/Joan" learns the details of his birth and immediately
reverts to living as a boy.
1982 - DES is shown to cause developmental abnormalities and vaginal cancer in female mice.
1983 - Responding to public concern over dioxin contamination at Times Beach, Love Canal, Jacksonville and
other sites, the U.S. Congress directs the EPA to conduct a National Dioxin Study to determine the extent of contamination
1985 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences holds a conference called Estrogens in the Environment
II: Influences on Development. Presentations address the effects of environmental estrogens on puberty in young children.
Also noted is the ubiquitous nature of the contaminants, their potency and their potential impact on public and environmental
EPA's Dioxin Risk Assessment classifies dioxin as a known animal and probable human carcinogen, setting the lowest
"safe exposure level" on record.
Eight Great Lakes states develop remedial action plans to address
environmental damage seen in IJC-targeted "Areas of Concern."
1986 - Documents are leaked to Greenpeace showing EPA agreed to demands from the paper industry to keep results
of National Dioxin Survey secret.
Under threat of lawsuit, EPA releases National Dioxin Survey. The study finds dioxin
is present in discharge from paper mills and in finished paper products (due to chlorine bleaching of white paper).
industry pressures EPA to reconsider its 1985 Dioxin Risk Assessment in hopes of obtaining a less damaging judgment on dioxin's
1986 - Homosexual diagnosis removed entirely from the DSM-IIIR
1987 - Green publishes The 'Sissy Boy Syndrome' and the development of homosexuality.
1988 - Blanchard & Clemmensen of Clarke Institute publish "A Test of the DSM-III-R's Implicit Assumption
that Fetishistic Arousal and Gender Dysphoria are Mutually Exclusive" in the Journal of Sex Research
Rekers' "The formation
of a homosexual orientation" appears in a publication of The Center for Child and Family Policy
1988 - EPA begins its first reassessment of dioxin.
1989 - Billy Tipton, jazz musician, dies and is discovered to be female after presenting as a man since
1990 - Rekers, et al publish "Long-term effects of treatment for childhood gender disturbance
1990 - The EPA and the Chlorine Institute (an industry group) co-sponsor the Banbury Conference on Dioxin,
which takes place on Long Island, New York. Conference attendees reach a consensus on dioxin's probable mechanism of action.
Colborn co-authors "Great Lakes, Great Legacy?," detailing developmental, reproductive, metabolic and behavioral damage to
wildlife from persistent chemical pollutants.
Fifth Biennial report of IJC puts threat in plain language,
saying that the principle danger of persistent organochlorine chemicals is to the fetus
Environmental groups around
the Great Lakes form the Zero Discharge Alliance to oppose production of bioaccumulative toxic substances
1991 - Theo Colborn helps organize a conference called "Chemically Induced Alterations in Sexual Development:
The Wildlife-Human Connection" and held at Wingspread in Racine, Wisconsin. For the first time, scientists from many disciplines
are brought together to discuss concerns about endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the environment. Participants present evidence
that compounds may have deleterious effects on sexual development in a variety of wildlife species. Possible impacts include
reproductive system abnormalities, reduced fertility, behavioral abnormalities, and population declines -- particularly in
Researchers Ana Soto and Carlos Sonnenschein report that some plastic compounds widely used in a variety
of consumer products are estrogenic in laboratory research.
The Chlorine Institute (an industry group)
prematurely issues a press release stating that below a certain threshold of exposure, dioxin has no adverse effects. Group
makes false claim that this was the consensus of the Banbury Conference.
EPA administrator Bill Reilly states publicly
that dioxin seems less dangerous than previously thought. He initiates a second EPA reassessment of dioxin.
tours 40 Great Lakes cities by boat in preparation for upcoming IJC meeting in Traverse City, Michigan. The publicity campaign
focuses on the goal of zero dioxin discharge by the paper industry. Greenpeace distributes a report entitled: "The Product
is the Poison: The Case for a Chlorine Phase-Out."
1992 - Sixth Biennial Report of the IJC calls for a phase-out of chlorine as an industrial feedstock. Drinking
water and pharmaceutical uses are exempted. Environmental groups and industry are surprised by this wide-reaching recommendation
Manufacturer's Association forms the Chlorine Chemistry Council (CCC) to promote the industry's agenda in the debate over
chlorine chemistry. CCC launches a public relations campaign, including television advertisements asserting the need for chlorine
1994 - EPA releases a Public Review Draft of its Dioxin Reassessment. It covers dioxin, dioxin-like PCBs
and furans. The report concludes that these chemicals cause harm at levels similar to those seen in the general public. In
addition to cancer, potential damage is seen to the immune, nervous and reproductive systems
1994 - DSM-IV published
1995 - The National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council sponsor a panel study called "Hormone
Related Toxicants in the Environment."
The EPA's Science Advisory Board reviews draft of Dioxin Reassessment.
1996 - The topic of endocrine disrupters is popularized with the publication of "Our Stolen Future," which
is co-authored by Theo Colborn and includes an introduction by U. S. Vice President Al Gore.
*President Clinton signs the Food Quality Protection Act
and amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, establishing the EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee
(EDSTAC). EDSTAC is a unique advisory committee of 40 members from industry, academia, government and environmental groups.
It is charged by Congress to develop a chemical screening program for endocrine disruptors by 1998, and to implement the program
by August, 1999.
Scientist Lou Guillette publishes his finding that male alligators in Florida's Lake Apopka have strikingly low levels of testosterone and abnormally small phallus size. Pesticide residues
in this contaminated lake appear to have "feminized" the alligators there.
Psychologists Sandra and Joe Jacobson report
that children exposed to high levels of PCBs before birth have as much as a 6.2 point IQ deficit later in life.
Harry Fisch publishes a study refuting any decline in U.S. sperm counts. He found, instead, striking geographical variation
in sperm counts across the U.S. While sperm counts remained constant in a given region between 1970 and 1994, New York had
higher counts than Minnesota, which had higher counts than California. Fisch thinks that the geographical variation may have
confused other research that, in 1992, showed a worldwide decline in human sperm count
1996 - Money publishes Man & Woman, Boy & Girl
1997 - Isay's call for removal of childhood GID from the DSM published in Psychiatric Times
1997 - Work by researcher Dr. Fredrick vom Saal shows that bisphenol-A, a component of polycarbonate plastic, can alter the reproductive development of lab mice at extremely
low doses. Bisphenol-A mimics the natural sex hormone estrogen. Male mice exposed to this plastic during fetal development
have premanently enlarged prostates and lower sperm counts. The effects occur at doses near those that humans are exposed
to each day from sources like food packaging and dental sealants.
A study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
shows that hypospadias, a hormone-dependent genital defect, is on the rise in baby boys.
The National Institute of
Environmental Health Sciences (HHS) holds its fourth major conference on estrogens in the environment in Arlington VA. Numerous
scientific papers and reports are presented on toxicology, risk assessment and research for this emerging health concern.
University scientists retract an environmental estrogen study published in a June 1996 issue of Science. The report had claimed
that combinations of pesticides were as much as 1,600 times more potent as environmental estrogens than the individual pesticides.
The research results couldn't be replicated and the study was retracted.
1998 - The National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine is expected to issue its report on hormone-related
toxicants in the environment. The NAS panel will critically review the literature, identify known and suspected impacts on
fish, wildlife and humans, and recommend research, monitoring and testing priorities, among other activities.
the EPA committee EDSTAC is mandated to develop recommendations on how to screen and test chemicals for their potential to
disrupt hormone function in humans and wildlife. EDSTAC's final plenary session is set for June 17-18 in Washington, D.C.
research paper published in the Journal of the American Medical Association reports that the proportion of males to females
born has been declining in the U.S. and Canada since the 1970s and in Denmark and the Netherlands between 1950 and 1994. The
study's authors suggest that endocrine disruptors may play a role, pointing to increased numbers of male reproductive disorders.
When the study is reported in the popular press, some scientists downplay the significance of the reported trend.
Al Gore urges the chemical industry to voluntarily release vital health information about thousands of commonly used chemicals.
He says such a move would "empower citizens with new knowledge" to safeguard their neighborhoods against potential chemical
The United Nations Environment Programme plans to hold a meeting in late June in Montreal to expand throughout
the world an agreement to ban, phase out or limit the production of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). POPs are chemical
substances that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects
to human health and the environment. Persistent Organic Pollutants include: aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, DDT, heptachlor,
hexachlorobenzene, mirex, toxaphene, PCBs, dioxins, and furans.
On Earth Day, the Chemical Manufacturers Association
announces it will urge its members to voluntarily increase their health effects testing program of industrial chemicals to
100 chemicals a year by 2003.
1998 - In Medical Law, Money publishes "Case consultation: ablatio penis," in which he suggests the boy
might be raised as a boy
Japan allows first legal SRS to be performed on an FTM
The Royal College of Psychiatrists publishes
report, "Gender Identity Disorders in Children and Adolescents"
1999 - Green mentions existence of gay and lesbian transsexuals in his presidential address at the XVI
Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association Symposium
2000 - DSM-IV-TR published
2002 - Chung, et al publish article on size of BSTc region of brain in trans women in The Journal of